Sumeria is the earliest known civilization and was based in southern Mesopotamia.
Possibily originated from Dilmun, in present day Qatar
Sumeria was the name given to the non-Semitic speaking region of Mesopotamia by the Semitic Akkadians. The Sumerians referred to themselves as ug sag gig ga, meaning the black-headed people, and their land as ki-en-gi, meaning place of the noble lords.
- Uruk - Built by Enmerkar, home of Gilgamesh
- Ur - Great Ziggurat: shrine to moon god Nanna, on mouth of Euphrates, birthplace of Abraham, led by Shulgi during Sumerian Renaissance
- Nippur - Temple of Enlil, Wind God
Ubaid period saw pottery and first settlement in southern Mesopotamia at Eridu.
Mass produced cylinder seals during its Uruk period.
Most Sumerian dynasties came under the control of the Gutians from the Zagros after the collapse of Akkad, as revealed by Ur-Namma victory inscriptions.
Contemporary with Sumerian resurgence was the Elamite kingdom under the Eparti dynasty, also known as Susiana with capital at Susa.
Eventually conquered and assimilated by Sargon of Akkad
Leaders were called "lugal" which literally translates to "big man".
Dumuzi - Lived over 3,600 years according to the Sumerian King List
Enmerkar - Built Uruk
Lugal-Zage-Si - Briefly ruled over a united Sumeria, Captured by Sargon of Akkad
Ennatum of Lagash - unified man city-states, extended realm to Elam
Used cuneiform script developed in Uruk period, hieroglyphic pictures, as a writing system.
Built ziggurats, our temple complexes atop raised platforms.
Inanna removes seven articles of clothing to pass through seven gates guarding this place